The Portuguese 25 April Revolution, also known as the Carnation Revolution, was a political event that occurred in Portugal in 1974. It was a peaceful revolution that brought an end to the authoritarian Estado Novo regime, which had been in power in Portugal since 1933. The revolution was sparked by a variety of factors, including widespread discontent with the regime’s economic policies, political repression, and the colonial wars in Africa.
The revolution began on April 25, 1974, when a group of junior military officers, known as the Armed Forces Movement (MFA), staged a coup and overthrew the government. The MFA was a coalition of left-wing and centrist officers who were frustrated with the regime’s policies and wanted to bring about political and social change. The coup was largely bloodless, and the MFA quickly gained the support of the population.
The revolution led to the establishment of a democratic government and the drafting of a new constitution. The new government implemented a number of social and economic reforms, including land reform, nationalization of key industries, and the establishment of a welfare state. The revolution also led to the withdrawal of Portuguese troops from its colonies in Africa, which marked the end of the colonial wars and the independence of the former colonies.
The 25 April Revolution is considered a turning point in Portuguese history and is celebrated as a national holiday in Portugal. It is widely regarded as a peaceful and successful revolution that brought about significant political and social change in the country.